I2C FAQ V1.3


1) About the Author

This article is a collection of information sources on the I2C Bus

Author: Vincent Himpe
E-mail: Vincent.himpe@ping.be
Last-modified: 08 Jul 1995
Version: 1.3
Archive-name: I2C-BUS-FAQ

My signature:

Vincent Himpe
Internet:                                        O  *)
   vincent.himpe@ping.be                          /
   vi_himpe@mietec.be                            \__/

You can visit my Homepages: http://www.ping.be/~ping0751

God has put me on earth to do a certain number of things.
Right now I'm so far behind I'll probably never die.

2) Disclaimer

I disclaim everything. The contents of this article might be totally inaccurate, inappropriate, misguided, or otherwise perverse - except for my name (hopefully I got that right).

3) Copyright

Copyright (c) 1995 by Vincent Himpe, all rights reserved.

4) Preface

Hi and welcome to the Third edition of the I2C FAQ.

Some sections have been re-arranged or partially re-written. Some new sections give an address list and roadmap to I2C devices (which is not complete for the moment. Only Philips devices are incorporated. More to come in the next release).

[filipg - the next paragraph does NOT apply to THIS HTML version of this FAQ. This version comes in ONE part]

Furthermore the FAQ has been split into 2 pieces. This is due to the fact that some Usenet tools have problems accessing files larger then 64Kbyte. (Current FAQ is over 75 Kbytes long).

There is also a Q&A section and troubleshooting guide. These two are based on questions I got from people who start to use the bus.

I get lots of replies from people that want to know if this faq has been archived yet. Well it hasn't. I have two problems here.

  1. I do not have space enough to store it. (My net provider only allows 50K storage space)

  2. I don't know of public sites where you can upload this kind of stuff nor how to do it. I know of sites like SIMTEL and so but I don't know if you can post this kind of information there. Neither do I know how to do it. (By FTP I suppose but I guess you will need approval of your upload from the maintainers of these sites)

If someone has a solution for this please feel free to contact me.

The 'hull' of this FAQ was taken from the 8051-FAQ by Russ Hersh. Also check out that one. It's a great lead for people interested in I2C. Lot's of 8051 clones have an I2C controller on board. Hope its useful to you guys and girls out there.

Keep those replies coming



5) Acknowledgments

As usual greetings go to:

Russ Hersh
For allowing the use of this layout, saved me lots of typing
Phil Wood
For giving additional information on books available from Philips. Phil is a sales manager for Philips components in the USA and can be reached via E-Mail: woodp@zilker.net

Stephen Phillips
For pointing out grammatical errors.

English is not my natural language but I guess you figured that one out already.

The guys from Philips PCALE Eindhoven.
Ian Willis


6.1) Who put this FAQ together?

I put this FAQ together in response to my own frustration in searching for information about I2C. I've been playing with the bus for some time and, although I am not an expert on this matter, I think my, and other people's, experiences with the I2C BUS can solve common problems.

6.2) How can I contribute to this FAQ?

If you have any suggestions or additions please inform me.

You can contact me:

    By e-mail:    Internet  : Vincent.himpe@ping.be (preferred)
                  Fido      : 2:291/1912.8

    By Snail-Mail:    Vincent Himpe
                      A.De Taeyelaan 12
                      8792 Desselgem

I hope that those of you who know of interesting items for this FAQ will share with everyone by contributing to this list. A good amount of stuff is turning up thanks to everyone's help.

If you are a manufacturer and have an anonymous ftp site or BBS available that has information and/or tools for the I2C Bus please let me know by EMail so that I can add it to this FAQ. Also, please feel free to update me on new products.

6.3) What newsgroups will this FAQ be posted to?

This FAQ will be posted to the following newsgroups:


These newsgroups often contain discussions, announcements, or information about I2C. Check them out from time to time.

The schedule for posting will be once a month. I can't promise that it will be on time, but I hope to post it by the end of each month.

6.4) May I post this FAQ to my local BBS?

I am putting no restrictions on the use of this FAQ except - It must be distributed in its entirety with the copyright notice, and no financial gain may be realized from it. After all, I have spent, and continue to spend, a lot of time on this. The only thing that I intend to gain from it is more information on I2C.

For this reason I have appended a copyright statement to the end of this FAQ. I feel pretty silly doing this, but I just want to protect myself. The copyright does not limit the use of this FAQ for non-commercial purposes. I hereby give my permission to one and all to pass this FAQ around and post it wherever you want - as long as it is not for financial gain.

You are allowed to distribute portions of the FAQ as long as you incorporate the following note:

"Taken from The I2C FAQ as posted in SCI.ELECTRONICS."

Thank you.

6.5) Other interesting FAQ's

Microcontroller FAQs

      Subject:  PIC microcontrollers
      Newsgroups:  comp.realtime
      Maintainer:  Tom Kellett

      Subject:  68hc11 microcontrollers
      Newsgroups:  comp.realtime
      Archive:  rtfm.mit.edu:   <plus all mirror sites>
      Maintainer:  Russ Hersch
                   Email: sibit@datasrv.co.il

      Subject:  Microcontroller primer and FAQ
      Newsgroups:  comp.sys.intel
      Archive:  rtfm.mit.edu:   <plus all mirror sites>
      Maintainer:  Russ Hersch
                   Email:  sibit@datasrv.co.il

Additional FAQs of interest

      Subject:  Robotics
      Newsgroups:  comp.robotics
      Maintainer:  Kevin Dowling
                   Email:  nivek@ri.cmu.edu
                   Smail:  Carnegie Mellon University
                           The Robotics Institute
                           Pittsburgh, PA 15213

      Subject:  Electronics
      Newsgroups:  sci.electronics
      Comments:  There are a number of FAQs available in this newsgroup
                 on various subjects.  Among some of the subjects covered
                 are: LCDs, stepper motors, etc

      FAQ subject:  Real-time
      Newsgroups:  comp.realtime
      Archive:  rtfm.mit.edu:  pub/usenet/comp.realtime
      Maintainer:  Mark Linimon
                       Lonesome Dove Computing Services
                       Roanoke, Virginia
                   Email: linimon@nominil.lonesome.com

      Subject:  Motorola 68K microprocessor line
      Newsgroups:  comp.sys.m68k
      Archive:  bode.ee.ualberta.ca : pub/motorola/general
                ftp.luth.se : /pub/misc/motorola/faq
                file name of archive is m68kfaq?.zip (? is version)
      Maintainer:  Robert Boys - Ontario, Canada
                   Email: r.boys@genie.geis.com


7.1) Historical background

The I2C bus was developed in the early 1980's by Philips semiconductors. It's purpose was to provide an easy way to connect a CPU to peripheral chips in a TV-set.

Normal Computer systems use ByteWide buses to accomplish this task. This results in lots of copper tracks on PCB's to route the Address and datalines. Not to mention a bunch of address decoders and glue logic to connect everything. In mass production items such as TV-sets, VCR's and audio equipment this is not acceptable. Furthermore lots of control lines implies that the systems is more susceptible to disturbances by EMC and ESD. The research done by Philips Labs in Eindhoven (The Netherlands) resulted in a 2 wire communication bus called the I2C bus.

I2C is an acronym for Inter-IC bus. It's name literally explains it's purpose: to provide a communication link between Integrated Circuits.

Nowadays the extent of the bus goes much further than Audio and Video equipment. The bus is generally accepted in industry. Offspring like D2B and ACCESS bus find their ways into computer peripherals like keyboards, mice, printers, monitors, etc. The I2C BUs has been adopted by several leading chip manufacturers like Xicor, SGS-Thomson, Siemens, Intel, TI, Maxim, Atmel, and Analog Devices.

7.2) I2C Bus protocol

The BUS physically consists of 2 active wires and a ground connection. The active wires, SDA and SCL, are both bidirectional. Where SDA is the Serial DAta line and SCL is the Serial CLock line.

Every component hooked up to the bus has its own unique address whether it is a CPU, LCD driver, memory, or complex function chip. Each of these chips can act as a receiver and/or transmitter depending on it's functionality. Obviously an LCD driver is only a receiver, while a memory or I/O chip can both be transmitter and receiver. Furthermore there may be one or more BUS MASTER's.

The BUS MASTER is the chip issuing the commands on the BUS. In the I2C protocol specification it is stated that the IC that initiates a data transfer on the bus is considered the BUS MASTER. At that time all the others are regarded to as the BUS SLAVEs.

As mentioned before, the IC bus is a Multi-MASTER BUS. This means that more than one IC capable of initiating data transfer can be connected to it. As MASTERs are generally microcomputers let's take a look at a general 'inter-IC chat' on the bus.

Lets consider the following setup:

    --------                    ------------
    | CPU  |-----------o--------| I/O port |
    --------           |        ------------
                       |        ------------
                       +--------| Memory   |

Case: The CPU wants to talk to the I/O port.

The CPU will issue a START condition (see further on for description of all these conditions) This acts as an 'ATTENTION' signal to all of the connected ic's. ALL IC's on the bus will listen to the bus for incoming data.

Then the CPU sends the address of the device he wants to address. This takes 8 clock pulses. At this moment in time all IC's will compare this address with their own. If it doesn't match they simply do nothing and wait until the bus is released by the STOP condition. If the address matches however the chip will produce a response on the ACKNOWLEDGE signal of the CPU.

The ACKNOWLEDGE signal is issued by the CPU. When the chip which address matches sees the ACKNOWLEDGE on the bus it Pulls the data line LOW. This is an indication to the CPU that there is a chip with the wanted address on the bus.

Now the CPU can start transmitting or receiving data In our case the CPU will transmit data. When all is done the CPU will issue a STOP condition. This is a signal that the bus has been released and that the IC's may expect another transmission to start any moment. We have had several states on the BUS right now: START, address, ACKNOWLEDGE, DATA, and STOP. These are all unique conditions on the BUS. Before we take a closer look into these I will talk about the hardware of the BUS. This is necessary to understand what physically is going on.

7.3) Hardware layout of the I2C bus

As stated before the BUS consists of 2 active signal lines and a ground potential. Internally in the chip the bus looks like this:

           /|      |    Note 1
       --o< |--+   |
           \|  |   |
               |   |
               |   |
             |-+   |
       ------|     |
             |-+   |
               |   |    Note 2
              ---  |
              ///  |


  1. The bus interface is built around an input buffer and an open drain or open collector transistor. When nothing happens the bus lines are in the logic HIGH state. Note here that an external PULL-UP resistor is necessary. This is an error that most beginners make. To put something on the BUS the chips drives its output transistor, thus pulling the BUS to a LOW level.

  2. When the bus is IDLE (nothing going on) both lines are HIGH. The HIGH state is defined as NOT LOW. (obvious isn't it). What I mean here is that you cannot set a voltage on the HIGH Level. It depends on the supply voltage of the IC's. However as this is mostly 5 Volts you can say that HIGH is 5 volts and LOW 0 volt. Nowadays, there even exist 3.3volt IC's. It's clear that in this case the high level will be 3.3 volts.

7.4) Events on the BUS

We have already mentioned some things like START, STOP, ACKNOWLEDGE, SLAVE, MASTER and so on. In this section these things get explained. When reading this you must keep the following 2 things in mind.

7.4.1) Start And Stop condition

A start condition looks like this:

     SDA H ------\             The chip issuing the Start condition first pulls
         L        \-------     the SDA (data) line low. And next
                               pulls the SCL (clock) line low.
     SCL H ---------\
         L           \----

A Stop is just the mirror of the above.

     SDA H           /----     The Bus master first releases the SCL and then
         L ---------/          the SDA line

     SCL H        /-------
         L ------/

The start condition acts as a signal to all connected IC's that something is about to be transmitted on the BUS. The Stop condition tells the connected chips that the message has been completed.

7.4.2) Putting something on the BUS

Putting a bit of any kind on the bus looks like this:

     SDA H       /----------\
         L -----/\----------/\-------

     SCL H          /----\
         L --------/      \----------

First the MASTER sets the data line to the appropriate level by pulling or not pulling the SDA line low. Then it releases the SCL line for some time and pulls it low again before changing the state of the SDA line.

This is necessary because not all chips on the bus are EDGE driven. The DATA must stay valid during the HIGH level of the CLOCK pulse. The only time the DATA line is allowed to change during the HIGH state of the clock is in a START or STOP condition.

Using the above information, a transfer could look like this:

     SDA H -\       /---\     /---\          /---\         /---\      /---
         L   \-----/     \---/     \--------/     \-------/     \----/

SCL H ----\ /-\ /-\ /-\ /-\ /-\ /-\ /------ L \---/ \-----/ \---/ \--/ \--/ \--/ \--/

| START | 1 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | STOP

As you can see in the above it is not necessary to have a clock with a constant duty cycle. The BUS is very relaxed even in such a way that you can stop the clock in the middle of a transaction and then continue later on. This is very useful. Consider the following: Your cpu is in the middle of a transaction and gets an interrupt. It can process the interrupt first and continue its message later on without any problem. (try doing that on RS232 !).

Since there is no minimum clock speed set you can have the communication running at whatever speed you can handle.

7.4.3) Addressing a chip

EVERY byte put on the BUS MUST be 8 bits long. (8 clock pulses) A byte is always sent with the MSB first.

The number of bytes that can be transmitted in one data 'telegram' is unrestricted. ('Data telegram' is everything going on on the bus between a START and STOP condition).

However it is allowed to end a transmission any time by sending a STOP condition. Even when you are only 4 bits far in your telegram. Actually what happens is that the STOP condition resets the bus control logic of all connected chips. They start looking for a START condition again.

Waiting for ACKNOWLEDGE.

When a chip is being addressed or has received data it will issue an ACKNOWLEDGE pulse. Therefore the MASTER must release the DATA line (set it to high level) and then release the CLOCK line. Now it must wait for the SLAVE to pull the DATA line low. Actually on the bus this looks like a START condition so nothing happens because of the fact that the IC's that have not been addressed are doing nothing.(they are waiting for a STOP condition remember ?)

When the SLAVE has pulled this line low the MASTER will take the CLOCK line low and then the SLAVE will release the SDA (data) line.

Now that the MASTER knows that the SLAVE is actually there it can continue. Generally the MASTERs (mainly CPUs running software) use a timeout value. When no chip is responding after some time they issue a STOP and then continue with their work. This prevents your software from locking up if for some reason the addressed chip is not replying.

Concerning the SLAVE pulling low the SDA line it is so that generally the addressed IC will already have pulled the SDA line low even before the MASTER has set the clock HIGH.

This is how theoretically it should work

     SDA H -\   /--------------------------------\        /--------
         L   \-/\--------------------------------/\------/\--------

     SCL H ----\  |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-|    |-|   |-| |-| |
         L      \-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |----| |---| |-| |-|

            START                                 |   |  |
                                                  |   |  |
                                                  |   |  |
                addressed SLAVE pulls SDA LOW  ---+   |  |
                CPU checks if SDA is LOW       -------+  |
                addressed SLAVE releases SDA ------------+

In the real life it is good practice to actually look during the high level of the CLOCK if the SDA is being pulled LOW or is LOW. Some chips need some time to process the address before they can respond by pulling the SDA low. This can be the fact when the addressed SLAVE is another CPU or an EEprom.

Suppose the following: You address a SLAVE CPU. But just before the SLAVE CPU can pull the SDA low it has to process some interrupt occurring. If the transfer issuing CPU would look to the SDA line immediately it would see a HIGH level. Thus it would look like the SLAVE is not responding.

The Same goes for EEproms. Since storing data to EEprom cells takes some time the ACKNOWLEDGE is used to indicate that the programming has been completed. So after the last bit has been transferred the EEprom starts writing the received data into it's array. It leaves the SDA line in the HIGH state until this action has been completed.

I have once spend a whole day figuring this one out! The system once in a while did not work like it should have because the addressed device was not capable of generating an ACKNOWLEDGE in time. The best way to do an ACKNOWLEDGE, in my humble opinion, is like this:

  1. Put the SCL high
  2. Wait some time (your TIMEOUT value)
  3. Check if SDA is LOW.

If you are writing to EEProms then take a bigger TIMEOUT value in account.

7.4.4) What happens next?

Now that the SLAVE has been addressed and responded to the ACKNOWLEDGE the rest of the telegram (until we issue a STOP) depends solely on the addressed chip. You can just send one or more bytes to the chip or receive one or more bytes from the chip. It can even be that you first write something and then read something from the chip.

7.4.5) Writing One or more bytes

After the Device has responded with an ACKNOWLEDGE (see above) you just send another 8 bits on the bus. Now you have to wait again for the SLAVE to ACKNOWLEDGE. If you are through you issue a STOP command and then the bus is released again. If you need to send more then you just send another 8 bits and wait for an ACKNOWLEDGE. And so on and on and on.

I figured out in real life that on the last transmitted byte you do not have to wait for the ACKNOWLEDGE. You can directly issue a STOP command. Apparently there are some chips that do not generate an ACKNOWLEDGE here!

Theoretically they should generate an ACKNOWLEDGE but for some reason they don't. The best way is as follows: after you have transferred your last byte just to set the SCL high, wait some time, take it low and then issue a STOP command. There is an exception though. Devices like serial EEproms use the ACKNOWLEDGE for storing the information in the Memory array. They do not pull the SDA line low until the programming has been completed. In that way the MASTER has a way to know if the data has been written successfully. Storing data in EEprom memory is rather slow. So by monitoring the SDA line the CPU knows when the chip has completed the WRITE to its memory array. A byte write could look like this:

      | S | SLAVE ADRESS | WA | DATA | WA | P |

A multi byte write looks like this:

      | S | SLAVE ADDR | WA | DATA | WA | DATA | WA |.....| DATA | WA | P |

     Note:  S  = START
             P  = STOP

7.4.6) Reading a byte

Looks kind of the same as a byte write. The difference is the handling of the SDA line and the ACKNOWLEDGE.

The MASTER generates a START, transmits the device address and waits for an ACKNOWLEDGE. So far so good. Now the MASTER has to RELEASE the SDA (data) line. The SLAVE will pull it low when needed. On every clock pulse, that the MASTER generates, the SDA line will be in the state set by the SLAVE. When all 8 bits have been read the MASTER must GIVE the ACKNOWLEDGE to the SLAVE .

This goes as follows:



What physically happens is the following:

     SDA H      /-------------------------------\/--\          /--
         L ----/\-------------------------------/    \--------/

     SCL H --\   |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-|        /-\
         L    \--| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-| |-------/   \------

           ACK  | MASTER controls SCL           |    |       |
           BY   | Slave controls  SDA           | *1 |  *2   | *3
           SLAVE|                               |    |       |

  1. The slave releases SDA (SDA goes HIGH)
  2. The master first pulls SDA low then gives a CLOCK pulse and releases SDA again. (SDA goes back high)
    This acts as a signal to the slave that the master has received all 8 bits.
  3. Depending on what happens next. A stop condition could be issued by the master. or another byte could be read.

Confused ? keep these rules in mind:

The chip controlling the CLOCK is the MASTER.
all others are SLAVES at that moment.

Now go and read the above again. (from Reading a BYTE on)

When you are reading another byte you just give another 8 clock pulses and then generate an ACKNOWLEDGE again. (note that it is the MASTER here that must generate the ACKNOWLEDGE ).

Reading one Byte

     | S | SLAVE ADDRESS | WA | READ BYTE | GA | P |



Since STOP resets all SLAVEs why bother about giving an ACKNOWLEDGE? This works fine in practical applications.

Reading a sequence of bytes.

     | S |  SLAVE ADDRESS | WA | READ BYTE | GA |....| READ BYTE | GA | P |


     | S |  SLAVE ADDRESS | WA | READ BYTE | GA |....| READ BYTE | P |

7.4.7) Determining the SLAVE Access mode

Now there is one thing I haven't told you yet. How does your SLAVE know whether you want to read from or write to it ?

Thats an easy one. This is being determined by the SLAVE address. Each byte consists of 8 bits. The 8th bit in the SLAVE address has a special meaning. When it is set to 0 it means you want to write to your SLAVE. When it is set to 1 it means that you you want to READ. You could see this as follow. The Even addresses are WRITE addresses, the ODD addresses are READ addresses. Each device has a consecutive WRITE and READ address.

     Example:   a PCF8574  General purpose 8 BIT I/O port.
                SLAVE address to WRITE is (01000000)b  = 64d
                SLAVE address to READ  is (01000001)b  = 65d

So you can have a theoretical maximum of 128 device on you BUS. Practically this is not the case. There have been set up a couple of addresses which you are not allowed to use.(more about this later on)

Still following?

Now there is one more type of DATA telegram.

7.4.8) The Combined data format

This is a format generally used by memory devices .

Suppose you have an 128 byte deep memory on the bus and you want to read the 84th byte. Normally you would have to read the first 83 bytes before getting what you want. This takes too much time and occupies the bus. In this case there are two possibilities. You first write to the SLAVE address a byte which tells it on which location you want to read. Then you start a read operation. That is one way of doing it. A more elegant way to do this is using a combined mode telegram.

     | S | AS WRITE | WA | SEND BYTE | WA | S | AS READ | WA | READ | P |

So you start out as a normal WRITE operation.

AS WRITE = Address Slave in WRITE mode (even address)

Wait for ACKNOWLEDGE and WRITE a byte. This byte is being treated by the memory as the location pointer. (that is how i2C memories work)

Then you wait for an ACKNOWLEDGE by the SLAVE and you generate another START condition. Now you send the SLAVEs READ address ( ODD address ) Wait for ACKNOWLEDGE and you receive the data byte. From now on you are in standard READ mode. So you can now send a STOP or continue reading from your SLAVE. All memory devices auto-increment their location pointer.

Now you can even go one step further and generate another START and then address the SLAVE as write. Send a new Data byte (which acts on the location pointer), send another start, enter read mode etc. This combined mode is really a very flexible means of addressing complex components.

You can easily do the following in one telegram.

     START, Address slave, set location pointer, read, read,
     set location pointer, read, set location pointer, write,
     set location pointer, read, write, STOP.

This may look very messy, but it has its pro's and con's.


If you have 2 CPU's on your bus which could want to take the bus this will assure you that you will be able to continue your actions on the bus without interference from the other CPU.

Remember that when you have generated a START and have sent the SLAVE address the other CPU too will be waiting until a STOP appears on the bus. So he will not try to put something on the bus.

There could be a risk involved using normal READ and WRITE operations

Picture this situation:

CPU 1 accesses the MEMORY and sets the location pointer to 84

Now the BUS is FREE.

CPU 2 sees this and thinks: okay my turn. he sets the location pointer to 92 because he wants to do something at that location.

Now the bus is free again.

CPU 1 says: aha ! the bus is free. Time to write for me. Now the data will land on location 92 and not on location 84 as it should have been.

So: If you are dealing with memories always use this last method. It keeps you out of trouble.


If you have lots of operations to do you can create a bottleneck situation. The other CPU could be waiting and waiting for a chance to have his turn on the bus.

Still with me?

Congratulations you have reached the EXPERT grade :-)

7.5) MULTIMASTER communication (collision detection)

As stated above you can have more than one CPU on the BUS. When you have only one CPU there are no risks of having collisions on the bus.

That situation changes with 2 CPU's.

When CPU 1 issues a START and sends an address the other one will back off. Because of the fact that if the address does not match his own address he has to wait until the bus is free. (STOP condition). So far no problem.

But as Murphy is, as usual, always around. It's when you least expect it that it goes wrong. Fortunately the BUS setup helps us out here. When you (as a MASTER ) change the state of a line, you MUST always check that it has gone to the level you wanted. If it hasn't: BACKOFF ! it's occupied !.

What could happen is that the TWO CPU's start communication on the same moment in time. Since it is an open collector/drain bus they can only PULL the line low. They cannot force it HIGH. (they can only leave it HIGH by not turning on their output transistor).

So they start transmitting. And all goes well as long as they both are asserting the same levels. (during START it's okay. They are doing the same) Then they start asserting a SLAVE address. The first CPU wants to access SLAVE address 84 and the second CPU wants SLAVE address 87 (for example). So all goes well until they arrive at the 7th bit in the SLAVE address.

     note:  84 = 01010100     (CPU 1)
            87 = 01010111     (CPU 2)

                       ++-- these are different.

     Now CPU 1 has pulled SDA LOW.
         CPU leaves SDA open.

Since they are both running clean and good written code they are testing what they have put on the BUS. CPU 1 sees that he has written a 0 and says OKAY. CPU 2 on the other hand sees that the line is LOW while he has left it HIGH -> COLLISION. BACK OFF !.

CPU 1 hasn't even seen this so he just continues whatever he was doing.

Now CPU2 has to check that the slave address being put on the bus is not his own. If it is not his own he has to wait for the STOP command to appear on the bus before attempting to take control again. On the other hand. If the address is his own address he must respond. In the latter case CPU2 becomes the slave device on the bus. This way all ends up well.

So from the above story we can conclude that is the one that has it's line LOW that always wins. The One which wanted the line to be HIGH when it is beefing pulled low by the other looses the BUS. We call this a loss of arbitration.

When a BACKOFF situation is generated it is good practice to have the cpu, that has to BACKOFF, wait for a STOP condition to appear on the bus. The other one is still busy transmitting .

Getting the hang of it ?. You are ready to face the world of I2C :-)

2.6 Special cases and exceptions.

During the above I have mentioned that there are some exceptions about device addressing. Not all addresses can be used. There are some that have been reserved by PHILIPS for special purposes.

     ADDRESS   R/W

     0000 000 0   : general call address
     0000 000 1   : start byte

     0000 001 x   : CBUS address
     0000 010 x   : address reserved for different bus format.

     0000 011 x   |
     0000 100 x   |
     0000 101 x   |} to be defined
     0000 110 x   | 
     0000 111 x   |

This implements that all addresses below 16 are reserved for special purposes

The reason behind this is that there are other buses around. Using this scheme you can connect device that uses a different bus to the I2C bus!

It is possible to put SPI, I2C, uWIRE and CBUS devices on the same I/O pins of your CPU. Since all buses different to I2C use 3 lines you can cut down on you CPU pin load using the following setup:

     | CPU |
     |     +------o--------o---------o--------o-------------
     |     |      |        |         |        |
     |     +------|-o------|-o-------|-o------|-o-----------
     |     |      | |      | |       | |      | |
     |     +------|-|-o----|-|-------|-|------|-|-o---------
     |     |      | | |    | |       | |      | | |
     |     |      | | |    | |       | |      | | |
     +-----+      | | |    | |       | |      | | |
                 +-----+  +---+     +---+    +-----+
                 | SPI |  |I2C|     |I2C|    |uWIRE|
                 +-----+  +---+     +---+    +-----+

How this exactly works would lead us too far. Maybe in the future this will be incorporated. If somebody out there has experience with these other buses ? Could be interesting .

CBUS is the ancestor of I2C. It was also developed by Philips. SPI is (c) Motorola and uWIRE is (c) National Semiconductor

Some general notes about these reserved addresses.

7.6) Electrical spec's of the I2C Bus

As the chips designed for an I2C bus can function on different Supply voltages the following levels have been set.

                      | Symbol | Unit |  Standard mode  |    FAST mode    |
                      |        |      | Min    | Max    | Min    | Max    |
     Low level input  |        |      |        |        |        |        |
         voltage      | Vil    | V    | -0.5   | 1.5    | -0.5   | 1.5    |
         rel to VDD   |        |      | -0.5   | 0.3Vdd | -0.5   | 0.3Vdd |
                      |        |      |        |        |        |        |
     HIGH level input |        |      |        |        |        |        |
         Volteg       | Vih    | V    | 3.0    | *1     | 3.0    | *1     |
         rel to VDD   |        |      | 0.7Vdd | *1     | 0.7Vdd | *1     |
                      |        |      |        |        |        |        |
     Hysteresis of    | Vhys   | V    | -      | -      | 0.2    | -      |
         Schmitttrig  |        |      |        |        |        |        |
                      |        |      |        |        |        |        |
     Pulse width of   |        |      |        |        |        |        |
     spikes that must | tSP    | nS   | -      | -      | 0      | 50     |
     be suppressed    |        |      |        |        |        |        |
                      |        |      |        |        |        |        |
     Low level output |        |      |        |        |        |        |
         voltage      |        |      |        |        |        |        |
         At 3mA       | Vol1   | V    | 0      | 0.4    | 0      | 0.4    |
         At 6mA       | Vol2   | V    | -      | -      | 0      | 0.6    |
                      |        |      |        |        |        |        |
     Input current of |        |      |        |        |        |        |
         BUS pins     | Ii     | uA   | -10    | 10     | 10     | 10     |
                      |        |      |        |        |        |        |
     Capacitance of   |        |      |        |        |        |        |
        each bus PIN  | Ci     | pF   | -      | 10     | -      | 10     |
                      |        |      |        |        |        |        |

     *1) Maximum Vih = VDD MAX + 0.5 V

The number of interfaces connected is limited to the number of available addresses and the load capacitance on the bus. This capacitance may not be bigger then 400pF. In the new standard this is preferred to be less than 200pF.

8) Enhanced I2C (FAST mode)

Since the first I2C spec release (which dates back from 1982) a couple of improvements have been made. In 1993 the new I2C spec was released. This new spec contains some additional sections covering FAST mode and 10 -Bit addressing. In this section the Fast mode will be covered, while in the next section information about 10 bit addressing is given.

In the FAST mode the physical bus parameters are not altered. The protocol, Bus levels, Capacitive load etc. remain unchanged. However the datarate has been increased to 400 Kbit/s. To accomplish this task a number of changes have been made to timing.

Since all CBUS activities have been canceled, there is no compatibility anymore with CBUS timing. The development of IC with CBUS interface has been stopped. The existing CBUS ic's are being taken out of production.

The input of the FAST mode devices all include Schmitt triggers to suppress noise. The output buffers include slope control of the falling edges of the SDA and SCL signals. If the power supply of a FAST mode device is switched off the BUS pins must be floating so that they do not obstruct the bus.

The pullup resistor must be adapted. For loads up to 200 pf a resistor is sufficient. For loads between 200pf and 400pF a current source is preferred.

9) Extended addressing (10 bit address mode)

Due to the increasing popularity of the I2C bus the address space is nearly exhausted. This starts posing problems for people currently in the phase of designing a new I2C compatible IC. Therefore the I2C standard has been adapted.

A chip that conforms to the new standard receives 2 address bytes. The first consists of 5 * a ONE, the 2MSB's of the address and the Read/Write bit. The second byte contains the LSB's of the address.

     |S| 1 1 1 1 1 A9 A8 R/W |WA| A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 | WA | .....

This scheme insures that the 0 bit addressing mode stays completely transparent for the other devices on the bus. Normally any new design should adept to this new addressing scheme.

10) Q&A section

Q: What is the maximum distance of the bus?

A: This depends on the load of the bus and the speed you run it at. In typical applications a few meters (3 to 4). Better: The maximum capacitive load has been specified (electrical Spec's in this FAQ).

If you run at a lower clock frequency then you could go further. If you are careful in routing your PCB's and cabling then you can take it further. I once had an application that had a total of about 100 meter cable in it. The entire system was clocked on something like 500 Hz. I used twisted pair cable and twisted SCL with GND and SDA with VCC. No problem. The systems is now up and running for over 2 years.

Q: I want to extend it "by the book". Is there something like a Buffer for I2C?

A: Yes indeed this exists. Philips manufactures a special chip to buffer the bidirectional lines of the I2C bus. Typically this is a current amplifier. What it does is force current into the wiring (a couple of mA). That way you can overcome the capacitance of long wiring.

Type: P82B715

Q: Can I isolate an I2C bus ? (using optocoupler or whatever)

A: This is possible. The circuit is rather complex due to the bidirectional nature of the I2C BUS.

However: Here it comes (for one channel).

   ------------o----------+             +------o-------------------
   VCC         |          |             |      |                VCC
              | |        | |            | 3K3  | 270
              | | 270    | | 3K3       | |    | |
              | |        | |           | |    | |
               |          |            | |    | |
        _______o____      |             |C     |
        |      |   |      |           | /      o______o_____
       | | OL1---  |      | --/       |/  OT1  |      |    |
   1K8 | |    \ /  |      |  /-->    B|\       |      |    |
       | |    ---  |      |           | \E     |C     |    |
        |      |   |      |             |    | /      |   | |
        |      |E  |      |             o___B|/ NPN   |   | | 1K8
        |   | /    |      |             |    |\       |   | |
   _____o__B|/     |      |             |    | \      |    |
            |\     |    C |             |      |E     |    |
   SDA      | \ C  |      \ |B          |      |      |    |
   or         |    |   OT2 \|    \--    |      | OL2 ---   |
   SCL    PNP |    |       /|  <--\     |      |     \ /   |
              |  C |    E / |           |      |     ---   |
              |    \ |B   |             |      |     E|    |    SDA or
              |     \|____o             |      |      \ |  |    SCL
              | NPN /|    |            | |     |   PNP \|__o______
              |    / |   | |           | |1K   |       /|B
              |  E |     | | 1K        | |     |      / |
              |    |     | |            |      |     C|
              |    |      |             |      |      |
   GND        |    |      |             |      |      |         GND
   -----------o----o------+             +------o------o------------

OT1 and OL1 are part of one optocoupler. OT2 and OL2 are the other optocoupler.

A couple of remarks:

Since the speed of the I2C bus can be rather high it is recommended to use a fast optocoupler. A 6N139 will do the job in all cases. The 2 PNP and 2 NPN transistors can be any standard type. Like 2N2219 and 2N2222 (USA) or BC547 and BC557 (EUROPE).

How does it work?

The problem with bidirectional lines is that a buffer tends to get stuck on a certain level. In the above schematic this has been dealt with. In the following explanation we assume that the left side is transmitting and the right side is receiving. Since the circuit is symmetrical, you could do it the other way around too. Suppose you send a logic 1 into the left side. The OL1 will stay dark. Since OT1 does not receive any light it is not turned on. The next transistor does not get driven and the line at the end is being pulled high by the 270 ohm and 1K8 resistor. The PNP transitory will not get driven. OL2 will not light. So OT2 does not get driven. So far so good.

Now lets look what will happen if we send a 0. The first transistor will be turned on. Thus OL1 will start emitting light. This results in the fact that OT1 will be turned on. The transistor connected to the Emitter of OT1 will be turned on too. The output line is now being pulled low via the 1K8 resistor. This low level would turn on the PNP transistor. This would result in OL2 to light, OT2 to turn on etc. The circuit would go into a lockup. But since the NPN transistor is pulling the Anode of the led to ground this will not happen. In this way we have eliminated the deadlock.

Q: What if I don't want to emulate the bus by software or if I don't have an I2C interface on my system ? Is there something like an I2C controller?

A: Yes indeed. There is a special chip to do the I2C interfacing. The PCD8584 or PCF8584 incorporate a complete I2C interface. These chips are designed in such way that they can interface to almost any microcontroller or computer around.

11) Overview of existing I2C components and their function


LCD Drivers:

       PCF 8566   96 segment LCD driver
       PCF 8568   LCD Row driver for dot matrix displays.
       PCF 8569   LCD Column driver for DOT matrix displays
       PCF 8576   160 segment LCD driver
       PCD 8577   64 Segment LCD driver
       PCF 8578   LCD Row driver for Dot matrix LCD's
       PCD 8579   Column driver for Dot matrix LCD's
       SAA 1064   4 Digit Led driver

I/O expanders:

       PCF 8574   8 Bit I/O port
       PCF 8574A  8 Bit I/O port different address.
       SAA 1300   5 Bit high current driver

Data converters

       PCF 8591   4 channel ADC + One DAC (all 8 bits)
       TDA 8442   Quad 6 bit DAC
       TDA 8444   Octal 6 bit DAC


       PCF 8570   256 byte static ram
       PCf 8571   128 byte static ram
       PCF 8581   128 byte EEprom
       PCF 8582   256 byte EEprom
       PCF 8583   256 byte RAM + Realtime clock and calendar
       PCF 8594   512 byte EEprom
       PCF 8598   1K  byte EEprom


       PCF 8573   Clock/Calendar
       PCF 8583   Clock/Calendar with 256 byte Ram

Master devices

       8xCL410    Low power 8051 cpu
       8xC528     8051 Compatible CPU with 32Krom 512 byte ram
       8xC552     8051 compatible CPU with 8Krom /UART/ADC/PWM
       8xC751     8051 Compatible CPU 24 pin 300 mil's DIL
       8xC752     8051 Compatible CPU 28 pin DIL
       68070      68000 CPU with MMU/UART/DMA/TIMER

Audio / Video

       PCD3311 3312  DTMF / Tone generator
       PCF8200       Voice synthesizer
       SAA1136       PCM interface
       SAA524x       Teletext processor
       SAA7191       S-VHS decoder
       SAA7192       Digital color space converter
       SAA7199       Digital encoder
       SAA9020       Field memory controller
       SAA9051       Digital TV decoder
       SAA9068       PIPCO  Picture in picture system
       SAB3035 3037  Tuning interface
       SAF1135       VPS decoder
       TDA4670       Picture improvement circuit
       TDA4680       Video processor
       TDA8421       HiFi stereo audio processor
       TDA8425       Audio processo rwith loudspeaker channel
       TDA8440       Video switch
       TDA8442       Color decoder interface
       TDA8443       YUV to RGB unit
       TDA8461       PAL / NTSC color decoder
       TEA6100       Fm tuning interface
       TEA6300 6310  Sound fader control
       TSA551x       TV Pll synthesizer
       TSA6057       Fm Pll synthesizer


       SAA1300    5 bit high current driver
       UMF1009    Frequency synthesizer


SGS-Thomson (ST)

Audio Video

      SDA3312   TV PLL synthesizer
      SDA2121   TV PLL synthesizer


      SDA2516   1K bit EEprom
      SDA2526   2K bit EEprom
      SDA2546   4K bit EEprom
      SDA2586   8K bit EEprom
      SDA3526   2K bit EEprom with write protection
      SDA3546   4K bit EEprom with write protection
      SDA3586   8K bit EEprom with write protection



      X24X00    128 bit EEprom
      X24001    128 bit EEprom
      X24C01    1k  bit EEprom
      X24012    1k  bit EEprom
      X24C02    2k  bit EEprom
      X24022    2k  bit EEprom
      X24C04    4k  bit EEprom
      X24042    4k  bit EEprom
      X24C08    8k  bit EEprom
      X24C16    16k bit EEprom
      X24164    16k bit EEprom

12) ACCESS bus

A recent offspring of the I2C BUS is the ACCESS Bus. This bus was code developed by Philips, Signetics, Digital and Intel. The goal was to create a bus that could help us getting rid of all cabling involved with computer peripherals. You would have 1 bus connector where you could hook up your keyboard, mouse, digitizer, scanner, printer, monitor etc.

Then by using software you could issue commands to your monitor or printer. Things like selecting fonts or programming brightness and picture size could be done from within software on the host platform.

Things like Hotplugging are included in the standard. There has been a chip developed that could replace the standard 8042 (which is the keyboard controller in an ibm PC) by an access bus controller. Digital is using the bus in its Alpha based machines. Sony and some other manufacturers have monitors that support the remote programming features. Microsoft will support the bus fully . (probably already in Windows 95).

Basically the hardware layer of the access bus is an I2C bus. All that has been done is implementing a software protocol to provide additional functionality to the system.

You can contact Sharon Baker at Signetics (408) 991-3518. for further information

A company called Computer Access technology provides plug in boards for IBM-PC that give your system ACCESS bus features.

Note that the address has changed since the FIRST FAQ issue.

     Computer Access Technology (CATC)
     3375 Scott Blvd.
     Suite #410
     Santa Clara CA 95054

     Phone  +1-408-727-6600
     Fax    +1-408-727-6622

     E-mail: catc@netcom.com

13) Appendix A - address Map of existing I2C components

Low | 000x     001x     010x     011x     100x     101x     110x     111x
0010| SAA5240  SAA5240  SAA5240  SAF1134  SAA5252  SAA9020  SAA9020  SAA9020
    | SAA4700  SAA5241  SAB9070  SAF1135  SAA9020
    | SAF1134  SAA5243  SAF1134
    | SAF1135  SAA5244  SAF1135
    |          SAA5245
    |          SAA5246
    |          SAA9041
    |          SAA4700
    |          SAF1134
    |          SAF1135
0011| SAA7250  SAA7250                    SAA1136  PCF1810  PCF1810  PCF1810
    | PCB5020  PCB5020                    PCF1810           SAA1770  SAA1770
    | PCB5021  PCB5021
    | PCB5032  PCB5032
0100| SAA1137  SAA1137  PCA1070  PCA1070  PCD3311  PCD3311  SAB3028  PCD5002
    | PCD4430  PCD4430                    PCD3312  PCD3312
    | SAA7194  SAA7194
    | PCF8574  PCF8574  PCF8574  PCF8574  PCF8574  PCF8574  PCF8574  PCF8574
    | TDA8444  TDA8444  TDA8444  TDA8444  TDA8444  TDA8444  TDA8444  TDA8444
0111| PCF8576  PCF8576  PCF8577  PCF8577A PCF8578  PCF8578  PCF8566  PCF8566
    | SAA1064  SAA1064  SAA1064  SAA1064  PCF8579  PCF8579
    | PCF8574A PCF8574A PCF8574A PCF8574A PCF8574A PCF8574A PCF8574A PCF8574A
1000| TEA6320  TDA8424  TDA8405
    | TEA6330  TDA8425  TDA8415
    |          TDA8526  TDA8416
    | TDA8420  TDA8420  TDA9840
    | TDA8421  TDA8421  TDA8940T
    | TDA9860  TDA9860  TDA8417
    | NE5751   NE5751   TDA6360  TDA6360
    |                   TDA8480  TDA8480
1001| TDA8440  TDA8440  TDA8440  TDA8440  TDA8440  TDA8440  TDA8440  TDA8440
    | TDA8540  TDA8540  TDA8540  TDA8540  TDA8540  TDA8540  TDA8540  TDA8540
    | PCF8591  PCF8591  PCF8591  PCF8591  PCF8591  PCF8591  PCF8591  PCF8591
1010| PCF8570  PCF8570  PCF8570  PCF8570  PCF8570  PCF8570  PCF8570  PCF8570
    | PCF8571  PCF8571  PCF8571  PCF8571  PCF8571  PCF8571  PCF8571  PCF8571
    | PCF8580  PCF8580  PCF8580  PCF8580  PCF8580  PCF8580  PCF8580  PCF8580
    | PCF8582  PCF8582  PCF8582  PCF8582  PCF8582  PCF8582  PCF8582  PCF8582
    | PCF8581  PCF8581  PCF8581  PCF8581  PCF8581  PCF8581  PCF8581  PCF8581
    | PCF8582  PCF8582  PCF8582  PCF8582  PCF8582  PCF8582  PCF8582  PCF8582
    | PCF8583  PCF8583
1011| SAA7199  SAA7191  TDA8416           TDA2518  PCA8510  SAA7186  SAA9065
    |          SAA7152                    SAA7186  PCA8516
    | PCF8570C PCF8570C PCF8570C PCF8570C PCF8570C PCF8570C PCF8570C PCF8570C
    | TSA5510  TSA5510  TSA5510  TSA5510  TSA5510  TSA5510  TSA5510  TSA5510
    | TSA5511  TSA5511  TSA5511  TSA5511  TSA5511  TSA5511  TSA5511  TSA5511
    | TSA5512  TSA5512  TSA5512  TSA5512  TSA5512  TSA5512  TSA5512  TSA5512
    | TSA5514  TSA5514  TSA5514  TSA5514  TSA5514  TSA5514  TSA5514  TSA5514
    | TSA5519  TSA5519  TSA5519  TSA5519  TSA5519  TSA5519  TSA5519  TSA5519
    | SAB3035  SAB3035  SAB3035  SAB3035  SAB3035  SAB3035  SAB3035  SAB3035
    | SAB3036  SAB3036  SAB3036  SAB3036  SAB3036  SAB3036  SAB3036  SAB3036
    | SAB3037  SAB3037  SAB3037  SAB3037  SAB3037  SAB3037  SAB3037  SAB3037
    | UMA1010  UMA1010  UMA1010  UMA1010  UMA1010  UMA1010  UMA1010  UMA1010
    | UMA1009  UMA1009  UMA1009  UMA1009  UMA1009  UMA1009  UMA1009  UMA1009
    |          TEA6000  TSA6057  TSA6057
    |          TEA6100  PCA8516  PCA8516
    |                   TSA6060  TSA6060
    |                   TSA6061  TSA6061
1101| TDA8443  TDA8443  TDA8443  TDA8443  TDA8443  TDA8443  TDA8443  TDA8443
    | PCF8573  PCF8573  PCF8573  PCF8573  UMA1000  UMA1000  UMA1000  UMA1000
    |                                     TDA1551           PCD4440  PCD4440
1110| SAA7192  SAA7192

When a device occurs more than once this means that all of those addresses can be selected. This usually happens by pulling some of the devices pin(s) to a certain level

14) Appendix B - Sources of Information About I2C

14.1) FTP sites

The following is a list of the various anonymous ftp sites that carry tools and examples about I2C and how to implement it. There are many others that are not listed here that contains bits and pieces. Usually you can find them using Archie and searching for "I2C","ACCESS BUS" and stuff like that.

    ftp.funet.fi (nic.funet.fi)
        /pub/microprocs/MCS-51   <mirror of ftp.pppl.gov>

    Philips-News@InetBSystems.us.com - Email (not ftp)
        - send Email with "subscribe" in the subject field to be put
          on list for newsletter
    Philips-archive@InetBSystems.us.com - Email (not ftp)
        - send Email message with the word "help" in the subject line to
          learn how to access the archive
    Philips-forum-request@InetBSystems.us.com  - Email (not ftp)
        - send an Email message with the word "subscribe" in the subject
          line to participate in the forum, and receive usage
          instructions and guidelines
    Philips-Info@InetBSystems.us.com - Email (not ftp)
        - send Email message to get information on all of Philips Email

    info@circellar.com - Email (not ftp)
        - send Email to get information file on services available
        - all Circuit Cellar INK and BYTE related files available

        - has information and software for a wide range of
          microprocessors and microcontrollers, you may have to look
          around a bit

        - stuff on the Philips 87C750/1/2 microcontrollers
        - stuff on I2C
        - assembler, an update for the software in the DS-750 kit,
          notebook of some early experiences and code
        - responses welcome, Michael A. Covington (mcovingt@ai.uga.edu)

awaiting final corporate approval... Philips Semiconductor ftp site

14.2) Web pages

        - c source to bit-bang I2c on a PC printer port.
      Various manufacturers WEBsites

      Link to a LARGE number of links to commercial pages from various

14.3) BBSs

    Circuit Cellar, Inc.
        - contains code from their magazine articles and from the
          original Circuit Cellar articles in Byte magazine, also
          contains many other interesting items
        - GOOD STUFF HERE!
        - The BBS is mentioned in the masthead of each issue (on the
          table of contents page).  Excerpts from the BBS appear in Ken
          Davidson's ConnecTime column in every issue with a description
          of how to access the system at the end of every column.
        - (203)871-1988
        - Voice: (203)875-2751
        - Fax: (203)872-2204
    Philips Semiconductor - Europe
        - support for: standard logic, programmable logic,
          in-car electronics (now open), 8 and 16 bit microcontrollers,
          I2C software, third party software, discrete semiconductors,
          cross assemblers (general), RF (planned)
        - PHIBBS is located in the Netherlands: +31-40-721102
        - maximum 21600 baud / V42bis / HST/Vterbo
        - 24 hours a day available
        - Help desk: +31-40-722749  (9.00 AM - 16.00 PM CET)
    Philips Semiconductor - North America
        - support for their 8051 variants
        - contains many good source code items
        - partially mirrored on ftp.pppl.gov and nic.funet.fi
        - (800)451-6644 or (408)991-2406

Appendix C - I2C products This section includes descriptions and references to free and commercial software for the I2C Bus and look-alike. FTP sites and BBSs contain many quality packages and code samples for free. For heavy duty use, you might prefer the many commercial packages that are available. With the public domain (or free) stuff, you're usually on your own. The commercial packages usually provide extensive documentation and support.

14.4) Free development tools

The following is a list of development tools that exist on the net.

IBM PC program to control I2C bus from the printer port.

      Program: TV312.EXE  / TV400.EXE / I2CRAD.EXE
      Description: Control program by Philips Semiconductors for I2C bus.
      Location:  ftp.pppl.gov : /pub/8051/signetics-bbs
                 ftp.funet.fi : /pub/microprocs/MCS-51/signetics-bbs
      The same site has lots of application notes on i2C and how to implement it on
      8051 and 68000 compatible CPUs

That's all right now. More to come in the next FAQ release

14.5) Commercially available products

    Philips Microcontroller Product Group
                    811 East Arques Ave. / POB 3409
                    Sunnvale, CA  94088-3409
                    Technical documentation:
                        Sunnyvale, CA - (800)447-1500  Fax: (408)991-3773
                        Eindhoven, Netherlands - Fax: 31-40-724825
                    Technical questions:
                        Sunnyvale, CA - (408)991-3518

A set of development boards for the I2C bus:

      S87C00KSD  I2C evaluation Board
      OM1016     I2C demo board with CPU and a number of peripherals like
                 I/O, AD/DA, LCD, RAM, EEprom, CLOCK, DTMF, IR receiver etc.
      OM1018     Manual for the above.
      OM1020     LCD and driver demoboard.
      OM4151     Similar to OM1016 but without IR link.
      OM4160     68070 based demoboard.
      OM1022     I2C bus analyzer. Hard and software for IBM PC.


      Contains the interface board, a mouse and an expansion box.
      Furthermore there are drivers and software + source code to start
      developing you own access bus peripherals.

Signetics Corporation (see Philips Microcontroller Product Group)

15) Appendix D - I2C DOCUMENTATION

15.1) Periodicals that sometimes have articles about I2C

Various magazines and journals (journals seems to be THE popular name for magazines these days) provide articles from time to time on the I2C bus

    The Computer Applications Journal (Circuit Cellar Ink)
        - programming and construction articles
        - POB 7694, Riverton, NJ  08077-8784
        - FAX: (203)872-2204
        - Voice orders: (609)786-0409
        - On-line orders (BBS): (203)871-1988
        - Email orders: ken.davidson@circellar.com
        - $21.95, $31.95 surface Canada and Mexico,
          $49.95 air all other countries
    Electronic Engineering Times
        - industry announcements and trends
        - FREE to qualified engineers and managers involved in
          engineering decisions
        - Fulfillment Dept., PO Box 9055, Jericho, NY  11753-8955
        - FAX:  (516)733-6960
    Electronics Now
        - construction articles
        - Box 55115, Boulder, CO  80321-5115
        - $19.97 one year
    Elektor Electronics
        - programming and construction articles
        - World Wide Subscription Service Ltd
          Unit 4, Gibbs Reed Farm, Pashley Road
          Ticehurst TN5 7HE, England
        - 27 UK pounds
        - Old Colony Sound Lab, P.O. Box 243, Peterborough, NH 03458
        - Tel. (603)924-6371, 924-6526
        - Fax: (603)924-9467
        - $57 USA and Canada per year

15.2) Books on I2C

I don't have information on all of these, only that they exist. I would greatly appreciate it if someone could provide a short synopsis and the complete book name if you are familiar with any of these titles.

    Data book / Handbook / Users' Guide
        - Philips I2C devices Handbook
        - 8051 Handbook from philips (contains also complete I2C spec)
          pub no : 9397-750-00013
        - I2C peripherals for microcontrollers.
          98-8080-574 (Philips ord.nr)
          Currently depleted. Scheduled for reprint in August
    IC01   Semiconductors for Radio and Audio systems
    IC02   Semiconductors for TV and Video systems.
    IC03   Semiconductors for Telecom systems
    IC14   8048 based microcontrollers
    IC20   8051 based microcontrollers
    Le BUS I2C  (in FRENCH !!)
       By Dominique Paret
       Dunod Technique  ISBN 2-10-001717-9

15.3) Miscellaneous documentation on i2C

    Intel Corporation
        - application notes
    Philips Semiconductors (Signetics)
        - application notes
    Databooks from Philips, Xicor, SGS Thomson etc.

16) Appendix E - Troubleshooting guide

Right. So you have built your first system using the I2C bus and you find out that it doesn't work as it should.

This section covers a few of the common pitfalls involved in using the bus.

First thing to check is: Are the pull-up resistors connected?

Probably the most common error is that people forget to connect a pull-up resistor between SDA and VCC and SCL and VCC.

Remember: SDA and SCL are open collector or open-drain lines. Resistance value should be between 4K7 and 47K.

The longer you make your lines the lower the resistance value should be. This is to force more current into the lines to overcome the capacitance formed by the lines. (This is very important if you want to run on high speeds)

Are all the lines toggled between the logic levels?

Check that the levels on both SDA and SCL fall into the allowed range. Check this both for high and low levels.

By now you should have a bus that is capable of transporting I2C signals. Now you can try to send some information to a chip or read some information It is best to connect only one slave device to the I2C bus.

The chip is not responding.

Check following things in order:

Are SCL and SDA connected correctly?
Are you accessing the right address?
Has the start command been issued correctly?

If you have a storage scope you can monitor the bus by connecting Channel 1 to SDA and channel 2 to SCL. Set the scope on Single shot trigger on channel 2. Set pre-trigger to 1 division.

If you don't have a scope you can use another trick. Send the start command plus the slave address. Now make the SCL line high. Your Master is now waiting for ACK from the slave device.

You can connect a led + resistor between VCC and SDA. If the led does not light then something is wrong.

        VCC  ---|>|--|___|--- SDA
               LED  470 Ohms

Send a couple of stop commands and then try again. It is possible that the chip is locking up due to power-on effects.

Replace the chip. It could be defective.

Now you can connect the other devices one by one. Each time try to access them.

I get strange results. Reading a device a couple of times ends up with different data all the time. Writing does not give predictable results. Sometimes the bus even locks up.

The most logic explanation here is that you have 2 chips on the same address. This can happen. Example: You have a circuit that uses 2 PCF8574 I/O ports. In your hurry you forget to wire them for different addresses. (You can have up to 8 of these in your circuit)

That's about it.

In most other cases you will need a storage scope to view what is actually happening on the I2C bus.

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